7.1 Parking & Loading Regulations

7.1.A General

  • Except as may be otherwise provided in this Section 7.1, off-street parking and loading shall be provided in accordance with this Section for any building or use created, enlarged, or increased after the effective date of these Regulations.
  • Parking and loading space shall be maintained and shall not be encroached upon so long as said principal building or use remains, unless an equivalent number of such spaces are provided elsewhere in conformance with these Regulations.
  • The requirement for off-street parking space and off-street loading space shall be a continuing obligation of the owner of the real estate on which any such structure or use is located as long as the structure or use is in existence and its use requiring vehicle parking facilities continues unless a change in use also changes the parking requirements.
  • It shall be unlawful for:
    • An owner of any structure or use affected by this Section to discontinue, change, or dispense with, or to cause the discontinuance of any vehicle parking or loading space.
    • Any firm or corporation to occupy a structure without providing parking and loading spaces, which meet with the requirements of and is in compliance with this these Regulations.
  • Handicapped parking shall be provided in accordance with CGS Section 14-253a and any other requirements of State law.
  • Nothing in this Section shall be construed to prevent collective provision of off-street parking facilities for two or more structures or uses, provided that the total of such off-street parking spaces supplied collectively shall, unless modified by the Commission as provided in Section 7.1.C, be not less than the sum of the requirements for the various uses computed separately.

7.1.B Number of Parking Spaces

Off-street parking spaces shall be provided for all new uses or buildings constructed, reconstructed, or enlarged after the effective date of these Regulations in accordance with the following schedule of requirements and any calculation resulting in a fraction shall be rounded to the nearest whole number:

1. RESIDENTIAL USESSPACES REQUIRED
a. One-family dwellings2 spaces per dwelling
b. Two-family dwellings3 spaces per dwelling
c. Multiple-family dwellings2.25 spaces per dwelling unit
d. Housing for elderly0.75 spaces per dwelling unit
   2. INSTITUTIONAL USESSPACES REQUIRED
a.  Places of assembly, including, but not limited to churches, auditoriums, theaters, and stadiums1 space for each 4 fixed seats or equivalent gross floor area
b.  General hospital, convalescent, nursing or rest home1 space per 4 patients beds plus 1 space per employee during the maximum work shift
3.  MARINE USESSPACES REQUIRED
a. Boat docks, marinas, and boatyards.1 space per boat or mooring facility
b. Tour boat / Sport fishing boats1 space for every 2 passengers the boat is licensed to carry
c. Passenger ferries1 space for each 2 passengers the ferry is licensed to carry
4.  RETAIL / SERVICE USESSPACES REQUIRED
a. Appliance, carpet, furniture, electrical, heating, and plumbing retail sales2.0 spaces per 1,000 square feet of gross floor area
b. Other retail sales and service establishments4.0 spaces per 1,000 square feet of gross floor area
c. Open or outdoor businesses, including, but not limited to those which sell new and used: Motor vehicles, trailers, mobile homes, building supplies, machinery, equipment, swimming pools, nursery, and garden supplies1 space per 1,000 square feet of lot area
d. Automotive services, including, but not limited to gas stations, auto dealers, auto accessories, auto repair, auto body and paint shop, muffler installations, tire shops, engine and transmission overhaul shops and car wash4.0 spaces per 1,000 square feet of gross floor area; or 3 spaces per bay, lift or equivalent, whichever is greater. An attendant- operated or self-service car wash shall have at least 10 waiting positions for each bay between the street line and such bay for cars approaching and at least 2 waiting positions for cars leaving said bays

SPACES REQUIRED
5. OFFICE USESSPACES REQUIRED
a. General business and professional offices and financial institutions4.0 spaces per 1,000 square feet of gross floor area; or 2 spaces for each office or tenant, whichever is greater

A drive-in bank window shall have at least 5 waiting positions between the street line and said window for cars approaching and at least 1 waiting position for cars leaving said window

6.  HOSPITALITY USESSPACES REQUIRED
a. Food and beverage establishments, including, but not limited to, restaurants, taverns, bars, luncheonettes, soda fountains, clubs (public and private), fraternal organizations and lodges12.0 spaces per 1,000 square feet of gross floor area
b. Hotels, motels, and boarding, lodging, and rooming houses1 space for each rooming unit, plus required parking for facilities used for eating, drinking, assembly, and other such uses
c. Bed and Breakfast Establishments1 space per guest room, 2 spaces for the resident- owner, and 1 space per non-resident staff employee on each shift
7.  INDUSTRIAL USESSPACES REQUIRED
a. Manufacturing and industrial establishments1 space for each 3 employees on the maximum work shift provided that for uses with more than 100 employees, an official of the firm or institution shall submit a semi-annual affidavit (beginning within 30 days of the effective date of these Regulations) certifying the number of employees on each work shift.

The parking requirements may be met in part by the provision of alternate transportation for employees in the following manner:

1. Each three occupied seats in a van or bus shall be considered as one parking space.

2. A bus which makes repeated trips from outlying areas outside City limits to the establishment before the start of the maximum work shift shall be counted once for each trip.

b. Wholesale and distribution businesses, warehousing and storage businesses, truck terminals and other enclosed non-industrial storage uses1 space for each 1,000 square feet of gross floor area or 1 space for each three 3 employees on the maximum work shift, whichever is greater provided that For uses with more than 100 employees, an official of the firm or institution shall submit a semi-annual affidavit (beginning within 30 days of the effective date of these Regulations) certifying the number of employees on each work shift.

The parking requirements may be met in part by the provision of alternate transportation for employees in the following manner:

1. Each three occupied seats in a van or bus shall be considered as one parking space.

2. A bus which makes repeated trips from outlying areas outside City limits to the establishment before the start of the maximum work shift shall be counted once for each trip.

8.  OTHER USESSPACES REQUIRED
a. Taxi services facility1 space for each licensed cab plus 1 space for on-duty dispatcher. The Commission may allow for vehicles to be stacked
b. Group day care homes / Child day care center1 space per employee or staff person plus 1 space per every 7 children / persons (or fraction thereof) that the facility is licensed to serve
c. Specialized ClassroomsA minimum of 0.33 parking spaces for every student, instructor, and supporting staff member, provided, however, if the Planning and Zoning Commission determines that the proposed classes will generate a greater demand for parking than can be accommodated by this ratio, it can, as a condition of the Special Permit, require additional spaces, as needed.
d. Halfway Houses and Community Residential Counseling Facilities (CRCFs)1 space for each staff member on maximum shift plus 1 space for each 3 adult residents. Additional parking spaces may be required by the Commission based upon the nature and use of the facility
e. Vocational Training Facilities1 space per employee or staff member on maximum shift plus one space per every 5 clients to be served based on the maximum number as stated in the application scope and services description. Additional parking spaces may be required by the Commission based upon the nature and use of the facility.
f. Micro-brewery-distillery-wineryOne space per 1,000 SF of production/ storage area along with other spaces as required for public floor area devoted to sales or consumption.
g. Mixed UseThe total required number of spaces for each use as listed herein. However, the Commission may allow a reduction under a shared parking scenario when uses have differing peek parking demands. When calculating the total number of spaces for mixed use development under a shared parking scenario, readily available published data shall be used. This may include the Institute of Traffic Engineers, American Planning Association or Urban Land Institute.
h. Accessory UsesThe Commission, or its designee, shall determine the minimum number of spaces required to support an accessory use based upon the accessory uses relationship to the principal use.
i. Uses not listedThe parking space requirements for a use not specifically listed in this Section shall be determined by the Commission based on parking demand generation for a listed use of similar characteristics.

7.1.C Possible Modification of Parking Requirements

  • Permanent Parking Reduction For A Single Property - The Commission may, by Special Permit, modify the cumulative parking requirements of Section 7.1B of these Regulations for a single property in the situations:
    • Where in a mixed-use development on a single property, there are two or more land uses which have differences in their principal operating hours or dissimilarities in their clientele, thereby allowing utilization of the same parking spaces.
    • Where a use is located within 500 feet of another use, such as a church or other public place of assembly that is not in operation during the same hours or days as the first use, and where such church or public place of assembly is willing to make its parking available to the first use.
    • Where the Commission finds that existing on-street parking or on-street parking to be established by the applicant in the vicinity will alleviate the need to provide the full complement of parking on the site.
  • Permanent Parking Reduction For Multiple Properties - The Commission may, by Special Permit, modify the cumulative parking requirements of Section 7.1B of these Regulations for multiple properties where the Commission finds that a functional and interconnected parking arrangement is provided within and between the properties, that an agreement for joint access and parking, in perpetuity, acceptable to the Commission is filed on the land records, and further provided the Commission finds one or more of the following based on information provided by the applicant:
    • Peak parking demands among uses occur at different hours of the day and this offset results in a lower net peak parking demand;
    • Synergistic relationships among uses allow patrons to park once while accessing multiple locations or allow for multiple purpose trips to occur within the development(s); or
    • The uses are likely to generate transit, bicycle or pedestrian trips and accommodations have been made to support these alternative forms of transportation.
  • Permanent Compact Space Parking Reduction - The Commission may, by Special Permit, permit parking spaces not less than 8 feet by 18 feet in cases where:
    • The parking spaces are for the exclusive use of employees,
    • All vehicles are parked by an attendant, or
    • The parking spaces are within a garage.
  • Temporary Change of Use Exemption - In the event that no new buildings or structures are being established and the land area, structures or permitted uses are simply being changed from one permitted use to another permitted use allowed under these Regulations, no additional parking spaces shall be required provided that:
    • The number of spaces that presently exist on the property is at least 90% of the cumulative parking requirement for the new use(s) and the other existing use(s) on the property, and
    • No "grandfathering" or other exception shall be provided relative to any future use of such premises.
  • Temporary Parking Installation Reduction - The Commission may, by Special Permit, waive the immediate installation of up to 25% of the required parking spaces where sufficient evidence has been presented, in the judgment of the Commission, to show that the reduced parking facilities will adequately serve the proposed use provided that:
    • The Special Permit shall be applicable only to the particular use or occupancy of land, buildings, or other structures specified in the application, and such Special Permit and Zoning / Building Permit issued for the use shall become null and void in the event that such use or occupancy is changed to another use or occupancy.
    • Before the Commission waives the immediate installation of spaces, the applicant shall show upon the site development plan the complete layout for the full parking requirements and the design of the complete stormwater management system designed to handle the deferred parking pavement.
    • Upon approval by the Commission, the owner shall file the plan approved by the Commission in the Office of the Town Clerk, stipulating that:
    • The complete stormwater management system shall be installed at the time of initial development, and the owner, or the successor and assigns of the owner, will install as many of the waived parking spaces as the Commission deems necessary within six months of the Commission's request, when, in the opinion of the Commission, such installation is needed

7.1.D Location of Parking

  • The parking spaces required for all residential dwellings shall be located on the same lot as the dwelling.
  • The parking spaces required for non-residential uses shall be located on the same lot as the principal use or on a lot which is within 500 feet of the principal use, such distance to be measured along the street lines to the property.
  • In industrial zones, if there are special and unusual circumstances that make it impractical to provide all required parking within 500 feet of the principal use, other provisions may be made for the location of parking provided parking is a permitted use in the zone in which it is to be located and subject to Special Permit approval and Site Plan approval by the Commission.
  • When required parking spaces are provided on land other than the lot occupied by the principal use for which they are required:
    • The land occupied by such spaces must be in the same possession as such principal use.
    • Such land must be bound by a covenant, recorded in the office of the Town Clerk binding such owner and his/her heirs and assigns to maintain the required number of parking spaces for the duration of the use served.

7.1.E Size of Spaces

  • Off-street parking space shall be 9 feet in width by 20 feet in length except that the Commission may, by Special Permit, permit the following parking space configuration where the location and distribution of spaces and overall circulation is appropriate.
    • At least 60% of the spaces shall be 9 feet in width by 18 feet in length;
    • Up to 20% of the spaces may be 8 feet in width by 16 feet in length and be marked as "compact spaces"; and
    • Up to 20% of the spaces shall be 10 feet in width by 20 feet in length and be marked as "oversized spaces."

An off-street loading space, as used herein, shall be a space of not less than 12 feet in width, 40 feet in length, and 14 feet in height.

7.1.F Parking Area Dimensions

A. Parking angle30°45°60°90°
B. Curb length22’16’6”12’9”10’5”9’
C. Stall depth8’18’19’19’18’
D. Driveway width

– one way

12’13’15’18’20’
  – two way20’20’20’22’24’
E. Parking space width8’9’9’9’9’
F. Parking space length22’18’18’18’18’

7.1.G General Layout Requirements

7.1-parking-layout

  • No parking lot is to be located in any required front yard setback
  • The general layout and traffic circulation of parking and loading areas shall be designed so as to avoid unsafe conditions and traffic congestion in the streets upon which the area has access and to provide for the safety and adequacy of access for vehicles and pedestrians using the area.
  • All proposed curb cuts and access drives shall comply with all applicable requirements of:
    • the State Department of Transportation when accessing a State highway, and
    • the City’s Highway Department when accessing a City street.
  • Any enclosed loading spaces shall be located at least 30 feet from any street line, and any open loading space shall be so designed that trucks when loading or unloading will not project over any street line.
  • Individual parking and loading spaces, maneuvering areas, entrances and exits shall be suitably identified with lines and arrows, as deemed necessary by the City Planner.
  • No access drive, aisle or maneuvering area shall have a turning radius of less than 20 feet.
  • Where vehicles will be located adjacent to sidewalks, fences, walls, required buffer strips, trees, landscaping, or similar constructions, a suitable bumper or curb shall be provided in such a location that the vehicle cannot overhang or otherwise damage said area.

7.1.H Loading Spaces

  • Every hospital, institution, hotel, retail store, office building, wholesale house, warehouse or industrial building, or additions thereto to which or from which outside deliveries of materials or dispatches of materials are to be made by motor vehicles and totaling 8,000 square feet or more in floor area constructed, reconstructed or enlarged after the effective date of these Regulations shall have on the lot one permanently maintained loading space and one additional loading space for each additional 16,000 square feet of floor area or major portion thereof, excluding basements.
  • When such calculation results in the requirement of a fractional space, any fraction up to and including one-half shall be disregarded and fractions over one-half shall require an additional loading space.

7.1.I Truck/Trailer Parking

No tractor, trailer, tractor-trailer combination or any truck loaded with merchandise shall be parked or stored on a lot for a period exceeding seven consecutive days in one calendar month, except in an industrially zoned district.

 7.1.J Surface / Lighting / Landscaping Requirements

  • Off-street parking and loading areas, including driveways, shall include an all-weather surface to the satisfaction of the Planning and Zoning Commission, or the Zoning and Building Official in cases where the Zoning and Building Official has final authority.
  • Such all-weather surface shall be stable, durable, dustless and graded and drained as to dispose of all surface water accumulation in the area.
  • Where the proposed grade exceeds 10%, all such areas and driveways shall be paved in those areas.
  • Any lighting used shall be in accordance with Section 7.6 and shall be shielded and so arranged as to direct the light away from adjoining premises and public rights-of-way.
  • All parking areas shall be landscaped in accordance with the requirements below:
    • Except in the Industrial / Technology (IT) or Technology Campus (TC) zones, not more than twelve (12) at-grade parking spaces shall be permitted in a continuous row, and not more than twenty-four (24) spaces shall be permitted in a single parking area without being interrupted by landscaping.
    • All parking areas with more than 5 spaces that abut or are across the street from, the boundary of, or any property within any Residential Zone shall be bordered on all sides with a 10-foot-wide buffer strip.
    • All loading areas that abut or are across the street from, the boundary of, or any property within any Residential Zone shall be bordered on all sides with a 10-foot-wide buffer strip.
    • A planting area with a minimum width of three (3) feet shall be provided between the parking area and the required setback line on any parcel, except in the Industrial / Technology (IT) or Technology Campus (TC) zones, where:
      • A Site Plan approval or Special Permit is required, and
      • The parking area faces a street or property line.
    • On such buffer strip(s) shall be located and maintained appropriate landscaping and fencing approved by the Commission of suitable type, density, and height to effectively screen the parking area and the lights of motor vehicles adjoining residential areas.